Outbreaks of new and reemerging infectious diseases, coupled with an increasing biological threat from non-state actors, highlight the continued need for the U.S. to prioritize biodefense efforts. The Blue Ribbon Panel on Biodefense has noted that the U.S. remains underprepared for a catastrophic biological attack or global pandemic, and has highlighted the need for increased government coordination in biodefense. Following the events of 2001, multiple policy directives and public laws were enacted, assigning enduring biodefense responsibilities to at least 16 different entities within the federal government. As a result, it is difficult to comprehend the full continuum of federal responsibilities.

In 2017, PNNL chartered an internally funded working group, the Policy Wranglers, to capture relevant biodefense policy directives, public laws, and corresponding sections of the U.S. Code, in a format conducive to visualization. The resulting tool can be utilized to better understand the current state of the U.S. biodefense enterprise.

This version of the Biodefense Policy Landscape Analysis Tool, updated on November 14, 2017, captures the enduring biodefense responsibilities from the following sources:

  • Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD) 9: Defense of United States Agriculture and Food
  • HSPD-10: Biodefense for the 21st Century
  • HSPD-18: Medical Countermeasures Against Weapons of Mass Destruction
  • Public Law (PL) 101-298: Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989
  • PL 102-182: Chemical & Biological Weapons Control & Warfare Elimination Act of 1991
  • PL 107-56: Uniting & Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT) Act of 2001
  • PL 107-188: Public Health Security & Bioterrorism Preparedness & Response Act of 2002
  • PL 107-296: Homeland Security Act of 2002
  • PL 108-276: Project BioShield Act of 2004
  • PL 109-417: Pandemic & All-Hazards Preparedness Act
  • PL 110-53: Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007
  • PL 113-5: Pandemic & All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act of 2013
  • PL 115: Securing our Agriculture and Food Act of 2017
  • Presidential Policy Directive (PPD) 21: Critical Infrastructure Security & Resilience

Where responsibilities have been incorporated into the U.S. Code, the USC reference has been included, as well as the originating public law. The primary documents used are available in the Document Library. Given the number of laws and directives relating to biodefense, and the complexity of the U.S. Code, the Biodefense Policy Landscape Analysis Tool is not intended to be a comprehensive reference of all biodefense and public health related responsibilities assigned to the federal departments and agencies, nor does it indicate which responsibilities are supported by corresponding appropriations. Rather, it is intended to educate the community on the current state of the biodefense enterprise.

The Policy Wranglers include: Rachel Bartholomew, (Lead/Project Manager), Kristin Omberg (Mapping Exercise Lead), Daniel Jackson, Karen Wahl, Rich Ozanich, Karen Taylor, Ann Lesperance, Jessica Gray, Owen Leiser, Ellen Wynkoop, and Sarah Frazar.

PNNL provides solutions for to stakeholders, partners, and sponsors to biodefense challenges through world-class technical, training, and policy expertise to meet the ever evolving domestic and international threat.

Special thanks to Lyndsey Franklin, Michelle Dowling, Flannery Currin, and Mia Feng for the data visualization interface.

Please contact Rachel Bartholomew (rachel.bartholomew@pnnl.gov) or Kristin Omberg (kristin.omberg@pnnl.gov) with any questions, comments, suggestions, or reports of typographical or transcription errors, which we will do our best to correct promptly!

This material was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor the United States Department of Energy, nor the Contractor, nor any or their employees, nor any jurisdiction or organization that has cooperated in the development of these materials, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness or any information, apparatus, product, software, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.

Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof, or Battelle Memorial Institute. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.


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